Common Questions of PCPS Systems

The Precast Concrete Paving Slabs (PCPS) Technology Implementation Group (TIG) Lead States Team felt that a data matrix would help users become familiar with the salient features and characteristics of each of the five leading Precast Concrete Paving Slab Systems. The features and questions were developed by the Team, based upon their collective experiences as both end-user-specifiers and as end-product suppliers. All input was provided by the producers and designers of each respective system.

It is our hope that this tool will help potential users to accelerate the implementation process for this emerging technology.

The development of the precast pavement system data matrix does not imply endorsement by the TIG and AASHTO of any products and services identified in the matrix. The TIG and AASHTO assume no liability for use of the information presented in the matrix.

  1. Origin of Method?
  2. Is the system Proprietary or Generic? (See Federal Register, 5/25/06.)
  3. What subgrade work is required prior to installation?
  4. What methods or bedding materials does the system utilize for achieving complete slab support?
  5. Can the system or method accommodate Pre- or Post- Tensioning technology?
  6. Describe the method of load transfer between precast panels/slabs.
  7. Describe the method of tying longitudinal joints to adjacent slabs.
  8. Type of Transverse & Longitudinal Joints? How is expansion accommodated? How are joints sealed?
  9. Modularity: Adaptable to meet plan view dimensions (i.e., tapers, widenings, curves, etc.)?
  10. Able to accommodate 3-dimensional surfaces (i.e., trapezoidal pieces, horizontal & vertical curves, radii, ramps, etc.)?
  11. Time Requirements: Can slabs be installed overnight or over the weekend? Time required for traffic-ready installation? Production rates for a specific time period?
  12. Constructability: What are the lane/space requirements for installation? Are specialized processes or equipment required? Are special contractors/workers required?
  13. Seasonal Limitations: Cold weather considerations? Hot weather considerations?
  14. Inspection Requirements: Is any special training of inspectors required?
  15. Expectations of finished surfaces: Is diamond grinding required? Choices of slab construction and finish/texture: Broomed, tined, astro-turf drag, exposed aggregate, two-course construction?
  16. Applications: Can the system be used for single slab replacements? Can the system be used for multiple slab placements? Can system be used for short - slab or joint replacement?
  17. Replaceability/Reusability/ Removability: Can individual slabs be replaced?
  18. What dimensional and geometric information is required about existing pavements at the time of design/bidding?
  19. What testing has been done on the system and what reports are available?
  20. What Technical Support is available (e.g., on-site training and assistance, shop drawings and engineering support, installation and manufacturing manuals)? Are pre- and post-pour processes established and checklists available?
  21. List and describe installations in service?
  22. Is assistance provided to prepare contract documents? Are cost estimates provided and by whom? Are actual historical installation rates available?
  23. Other comments, considerations, etc.?
  24. Contact Information

 


1. Origin of Method?

KWIK SLAB
Invented by noted structural Engineer Dr. Alfred A. Yee (Member of National Academy of Engineering).

PPCPMethod
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Pavement (PPCP) method developed at the Center for Transportation Research at The University of Texas at Austin through an FHWA-sponsored feasibility study.

Super-Slab® System
Super-Slab® was developed by The Fort Miller Co., Inc. in conjunction with The New York State Thruway Authority and NY State DOT.

PFDR/DBR Method
Precast Full-Depth Replacement/Dowel Bar Retrofit Method developed by staff at the Michigan Department of Transportation and Michigan State University.

Uretek USA Method
The URETEK Stitch-In-Time load transfer device system was developed by URETEK Vice-President Carl Ferm. The system was fully tested by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., of Chicago.

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2. Is the system Proprietary or Generic? (See Federal Register, 5/25/06.)

KWIK SLAB
Proprietary.

PPCP Method
Generic. No proprietary features are specified.

Super-Slab® System
Proprietary. The Super-Slab® system is owned by The Fort Miller Co., Inc.

PFDR/DBR Method
Generic. No proprietary features are specified.

Uretek USA Method
This is a strictly proprietary, patented system.

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3. What subgrade work is required prior to installation?

KWIK SLAB
Grading and compaction of subbase are necessary.

PPCP Method
Trim/level subgrade, or place a thin bituminous or cementitious leveling course. A single layer of polyethylene sheeting is placed over the prepared subgrade as a friction-reducing layer.

Super-Slab® System
Since Super-Slab® panels are of constant thickness, the subgrade surface must be finished exactly parallel to the pavement surface in the same manner required for the surface of cast-in-place pavements.

To accomplish this, a thin layer of bedding material is placed, fully compacted and fine-graded to an accuracy of +/- 3mm. The accurate finish of the subgrade provides grade control for the slabs and near complete slab support, even prior to installation of the bedding grout, allowing traffic to use the slabs (temporarily) until the grout is installed in the next shift.

PFDR/DBR Method
No subgrade work is needed. In rare cases, the subbase may require compaction.

Uretek USA Method
Little subgrade work is needed. Simple grading of base materials is accomplished before placement of the precast slab.

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4. What methods or bedding materials does the system utilize for achieving complete slab support?

KWIK SLAB
Ready-mix grout is pumped through grout holes in the slabs to fill voids between the slab soffit and subgrade.

PPCP Method
Optional underslab grouting after panel installation, as necessary.

Super-Slab® System
Any voids left between the slabs and the precisely graded subgrade surface are filled with bedding grout. Grout is pumped into the under-slab area, after the slabs are placed, through grout ports that access a bedding grout distribution system (cast into the bottoms of the slabs) that directs bedding grout to any voids that may exist. This process does not adjust or change the grade of the slabs.

PFDR/DBR Method
Undersealing is achieved with flowable fill or fast-setting foam.

Uretek USA Method
The base course is topped (foam is injected after the slab is set) with URETEK's injected polymer to fill voids and lift the precast slabs into profile.

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5. Can the system or method accommodate Pre- or Post- Tensioning technology?

KWIK SLAB
Slabs can be post-tensioned or pretensioned, but the connecting steel shall be reinforced steel and cast steel couplers must be adequately anchored.

PPCP Method
Pretensioning and/or post-tensioning are utilized. In general, precast panels are pretensioned in one direction during fabrication and post-tensioned together in the other direction after installation. Alternatively, two-way post-tensioning can be used in lieu of pretensioning.

Super-Slab® System
The Super-Slab® System emulates the details of standard jointed concrete pavement. Super-Slab® panels may be pretensioned if necessary or beneficial. While Super-Slab® panels can be post-tensioned, this technique has not yet been employed or considered practical since most of the projects constructed to date have been slab replacements accomplished with rapid, overnight or under-traffic construction.

PFDR/DBR Method
N/A

Uretek USA Method
Pretensioning, post-tensioning, or traditional steel rebar-designed precast slabs are easily used with the Stitch-In-Time system.

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6. Describe the method of load transfer between precast panels/slabs.

KWIK SLAB
Patented steel couplers have been designed and manufactured to connect with continuity bars between adjacent slabs. The couplers are embedded in the female edge of the slab to receive extended steel dowels from the adjacent male edge of slab in a convenient manner requiring only a vertical drop and grouting.

This mechanism has been proven (through laboratory tests and actual applications) to develop the full tension capacity of the connected bars between adjacent slab.

Shear transfer (along both transverse and longitudinal joints) is provided primarily by continuous shear keyways filled with high-strength grout in addition to reinforcing steel dowels made continuous through the joint using the patented Kwik Joint Couplers to provide full continuity and shear friction with grouted keyways.

PPCP Method
Tongue-and-groove keyways are cast into the edges of the panels to ensure vertical alignment between panels during installation and to provide temporary load transfer prior to post-tensioning. Post-tensioning provides permanent load transfer between individual panels.

Dowels are used to provide load transfer across active expansion joints.

Super-Slab® System
Standard load transfer dowels are cast in each slab such that half of length of each dowel protrudes from the leading transverse edge. The exposed dowels are enveloped in dovetail-shaped slots that are cast in the bottom of the trailing transverse edge of the adjacent slab.

High-strength structural dowel grout is pumped into the slots through grout ports in the tops of the slabs to complete the structural load transfer connection between the slabs.

PFDR/DBR Method
Dowel bars are retrofitted at the repair's transverse joints, and slab is undersealed. Dowel bar retrofit slots are filled with a pre-packaged hydraulic cementitious material. The dowels are intended to provide load transfer between the precast panel and the adjacent slab.

Uretek USA Method
The Stitch-In-Time system employs the placement of high-strength fiberglass inserts placed into very narrow (1/2-inch wide) saw-cut or precast slots located in the wheel paths of the replacement slab. The inserts are bonded to the slab using light sand and a fast-setting polymer. The slabs are immediately ready for traffic, which speeds the process of panel replacement and virtually eliminates long lane closures.

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7. Describe the method of tying longitudinal joints to adjacent slabs.

KWIK SLAB
See answer in Item #6 above.

PPCP Method
Isolation joints have been used to date. Tie bars or slots for cross-stitching can be cast into the panels for tying across longitudinal joints if necessary.

Super-Slab® System
Standard ties bars are cast along longitudinal edges of slabs and are grouted in the same manner as that described for load transfer dowels.

PFDR/DBR Method
N/A

Uretek USA Method
Three additional Stitches are typically required along the longitudinal joint.

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8. Type of Transverse & Longitudinal Joints? How is expansion accommodated? How are joints sealed?

KWIK SLAB
Transverse and longitudinal joints are executed similar to items 6 & 7 above.

The joints are sealed with acrylic polymer cementitious mortar. The precast slabs are cured during storage in the precast yard so most of the shrinkage movements have occurred prior to installation.

Expansion joints can be installed at large intervals (e.g., 1000 ft. or so), if required, but we do not recommend the use of any expansion joints.

The precast slabs are embedded in the soil, which experiences similar temperature changes, thus largely mitigating differential expansion characteristics. Furthermore, the slabs are fully and continuously reinforced in two directions. This reinforcement resists cracking due to differential expansion or contraction between the precast slabs and the soil subgrade.

PPCP Method
Transverse joints between panels are keyed joints, as described in Item 6, above. Epoxy is applied to the keyways prior to installing the panels in order to seal the transverse joints and bond the panels together.

Longitudinal slab movement is accumulated at expansion joints at the ends of each post-tensioned section of panels (generally spaced at 250 ft). Expansion joints must be dowelled, and can be armored joints, header-type joints, or plain doweled joints. Expansion joints can be sealed with preformed neoprene seals, silicone, or other approved pavement expansion joint sealants that are able to accommodate the anticipated joint movement.

Longitudinal isolation or tied joints are sealed using standard longitudinal joint sealing materials.

Super-Slab® System
All edges of slabs are straight (non-keyed). Joints are filled to within 2 inches of the top of the slab with non-shrink structural grout when dowel and tie bar slots are filled. The tops of the joints are sawed and sealed with standard silicone joint sealant.

Expansion joint material is inserted over the dowels in transverse joints during slab installation at intervals indicated by the pavement design engineer.

PFDR/DBR Method
Transverse and longitudinal joints are sealed with hot-poured rubber. If expansion is needed, it is accomplished by placing expansion caps on dowel bar ends that are to be placed in the existing pavement.

Uretek USA Method
Joints are typically sealed with conventional hot-poured rubber or silicone sealant. Male-female expansion collars are used in lieu of Stitches on every fifth joint.

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9. Modularity: Adaptable to meet plan view dimensions (i.e., tapers, widenings, curves, etc.)?

KWIK SLAB
The Kwik Slab System can be made to meet plan view tapers, widenings, curves, super-elevations, roadway crowns, etc.

PPCP Method
"Custom" shaped precast panels can be fabricated to accommodate changes in pavement width, horizontal curves, and superelevations.

Super-Slab® System
Super-Slab® panels are cast to meet any plan view dimensions within recommended aspect ratios and in accordance with commonly-accepted slab design. Special trapezoidal or custom shapes are cast as required to meet adjacent pavement joints, manhole and catch basin frames or other pavement appurtenances.

PFDR/DBR Method
Precast repairs can be made to meet existing roadway dimensions.

Uretek USA Method
Any custom shaped precast slab design is easily used with Stitch-In-Time.

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10. Able to accommodate 3-dimensional surfaces (i.e., trapezoidal pieces, horizontal & vertical curves, radii, ramps, etc.)?

KWIK SLAB
The Kwik Slab System utilizes trapezoidal and pie-shaped or curved segments and grading of the subbase, etc. to accommodate horizontal and vertical curves, radii, ramps, slopes, super-elevations, etc.

Test pads installed in a precast yard performed successfully under heavy traffic (concrete trucks, etc.) for over a year.

The first commercial bus stop pad was installed in November 2006.

PPCP Method
Panels can be fabricated with a variable thickness in order to accommodate changes in pavement cross-slope and crowned cross-sections.

Super-Slab® System
To meet 3-dimensional surface requirements, the “x”, “y” and “z” coordinates of every corner of every slab are determined prior to slab fabrication. Individual slabs are then cast in adjustable (patented) steel molds to the required 3-dimensional surface geometry. Individual slabs have been cast with one corner out of plane with respect to the other three by as much as 4 inches.

PFDR/DBR Method
Typically not required for short repairs.

Uretek USA Method
Any custom-shaped precast slab design is easily used with Stitch-In-Time.

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11. Time Requirements: Can slabs be installed overnight or over the weekend? Time required for traffic-ready installation? Production rates for a specific time period?

KWIK SLAB
The Kwik Slab can be installed in a single shift or over the weekend in time to be ready for work week traffic, depending on the complexity of the geometry and size of installation. For rapid, traffic-ready installations, high-strength grout (capable of developing 5000 psi in 5 hrs.) can be utilized for the jointing and bedding of the Kwik Slabs.

After subgrade preparation, installation of the slabs requires approximately 10 minutes per slab (before grouting). Subgrade preparation is generally performed on existing pavements using cold planing machinery, which is a very rapid and clean way of making neat and accurate cuts and excavations in existing pavements. For short run installations (e.g., a 100-ft long concrete bus stop pad), it is possible to execute the entire installation in a single 10-hr evening shift.

PPCP Method
Panels can be installed overnight or over a weekend and opened to traffic immediately. Pavement can be opened to traffic prior to completion of post-tensioning and tendon/underslab grouting, if necessary, leaving these operations for a subsequent work shift. In general, installation rates are approximately 10-15 minutes per panel. Post-tensioning, tendon grouting, and underslab grouting generally require 1-3 hours per section of pavement for each operation.

Super-Slab® System
Super-Slab® panels are routinely installed overnight, over the weekend, or in any otherwise-abbreviated work window. Existing pavements have been removed and new slabs installed and opened to traffic in closures as short as 5 hours.

Slabs may be opened to traffic immediately upon placement (i.e., before dowel or bedding grout is installed), as required for traffic maintenance.

Super-Slab® panels have been installed intermittently at the rate of 2,000 SF per 8-hour night work window, and continuously at the rate of 3,000 SF per 8-hour work window. Once the subgrade is ready, slabs can be installed at the rate of 1500 SF and more per hour.

Higher production rates than those indicated above can be realized during weekend closures that provide more hours of uninterrupted installation time.

PFDR/DBR Method
Yes, panels can be installed overnight or over the weekend and can be opened to traffic within hours of placement. Production rates are difficult to estimate because they were not monitored during the feasibility study.

Uretek USA Method
Panels are easily installed overnight and can be opened for traffic use immediately. We typically expect to install three precast replacement panels during a seven-hour work period.

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12. Constructability: What are the lane/space requirements for installation? Are specialized processes or equipment required? Are special contractors/workers required?

KWIK SLAB
One lane is required to install slabs. No specialized processes or equipment are required; however, a cold planer can be helpful to speed the construction process on existing HMA pavements. No special contractors or workers are required.

PPCP Method
Additional lanes are not required for installing the panels, but one additional lane may be necessary for crane staging and delivery trucks if the subgrade/leveling course in front of the panel installation operation is not able to support the weight of the crane without damaging it.

Post-tensioning and grouting operations are the only processes that require specialized equipment and specially trained workers.

Super-Slab® System
Cranes typically used to place standard length slabs (16 ft) require about 24 ft for outrigger placement. Therefore, two lanes are typically required. Slabs can be installed in a two-lane (total) work area, since cranes can occupy ungrouted slabs without disturbing the subgrade area during installation. Single-lane closures are possible with special (straddle) cranes.

Access to the special equipment that is required for precision grading (Supergrading) is provided by The Fort Miller Co., Inc. General contractors have successfully installed Super-Slab® panels with proper training and guidance by Fort Miller.

PFDR/DBR Method
One lane is required to place repairs. Existing contractors with existing equipment can effectively produce the work.

Uretek USA Method
One lane is typically required for installation of replacement panels and Stitches.

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13. Seasonal Limitations: Cold weather considerations? Hot weather considerations?

KWIK SLAB
Cold weather installations may require a shroud to insulate the joint grout. For hot weather conditions, admixtures may be necessary to prevent flash setting of concrete during manufacture.

PPCP Method
Tendon and underslab grouting operations may be limited by cold weather. Joint epoxy must be selected according to the prevailing weather conditions during installation.

Super-Slab® System
Installation in hot or cold weather is limited by temperature requirements and limitations of the grout. In cold weather, grout materials are heated to allow sub-freezing slab placement. In hot weather, grout materials are kept cool and/or iced to prevent flash setting of the grout.

Super-Slab® has frequently been installed in shifts that experienced very heavy rainfall and has also been installed in sub-freezing temperatures.

PFDR/DBR Method
There may be cold weather limitations on hot-pour joint sealant placement and slot repair material placement.

Uretek USA Method
The cold weather limitation requires temperatures above 36°F. There are no hot weather limitations.

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14. Inspection Requirements: Is any special training of inspectors required?

KWIK SLAB
Inspectors must be trained to observe and advise on installation and grouting procedures.

PPCP Method
Fabrication plant inspectors should be familiar with prestressed concrete inspection requirements. On-site inspectors should be familiar with post-tensioning and grouting inspection requirements.

Super-Slab® System
Standard plant inspectors are adequate for inspection of the fabrication. Special training (provided by Fort Miller) is required for field inspectors and engineers.

PFDR/DBR Method
No.

Uretek USA Method
No.

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15. Expectations of finished surfaces: Is diamond grinding required? Choices of slab construction and finish/texture: Broomed, tined, astro-turf drag, exposed aggregate, two-course construction?

KWIK SLAB
No grinding is required unless large differences in elevation occur. A cementitious acrylic polymer coating can be used to even out elevation inconsistencies between adjacent slabs.

The owner shall determine the finish desired so the precaster and installer can respond accordingly.

PPCP Method
Grinding may be required to meet "Interstate-level" smoothness requirements, but the pavement will be smooth enough to open to traffic prior to grinding.

Virtually any texture or surface treatment can be incorporated into the panel surface, but these textures may be removed by grinding, if required.

Super-Slab® System
Super-Slab® panels may be finished to a broomed, tined or astro-turf drag texture in either the transverse or longitudinal directions. Other finishes, such as exposed aggregate for noise reduction and colored brick texture for cross walks, may be provided.

Since the deviation of slab surface elevations from plan can vary from 0 to 3mm+, diamond grinding may be required to achieve smoother surface requirements.

PFDR/DBR Method
The repair needs to be constructed level with the existing pavement. Precast repair surfaces can be finished at casting to any texture that the agency desires.

Uretek USA Method
Precast finishes require no additional leveling or grinding.

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16. Applications: Can the system be used for single slab replacements? Can the system be used for multiple slab placements? Can system be used for short - slab or joint replacement?

KWIK SLAB
Yes, yes, and yes.

PPCP Method
This system is best suited for multiple consecutive slab replacements, although it can be adapted for individual slab replacements. The system is not well-suited for joint replacements.

Super-Slab® System
Super-Slab® panels may be used for single slab replacements of any size, including individual slabs for joint replacement only. Such slabs are cast with under-slab slots at both transverse joints; these slots encompass dowels and/or tie bars that are epoxy anchored into existing adjacent pavement.

Super-Slab® may also be used for continuous pavement reconstruction in single or multiple lane applications.

Super-Slab® has also been successfully used for crosswalks in urban areas.

PFDR/DBR Method
The product can be used to replace broken panels or damaged joints.

Uretek USA Method
Single or multiple panels and short or long panels are all easily accommodated with Stitch-In-Time.

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17. Replaceability/Reusability/ Removability: Can individual slabs be replaced?

KWIK SLAB
Yes

PPCP Method
Yes, although prestress may be lost in the section that is replaced.

Super-Slab® System
Individual Super-Slab® panels may be removed from a continuous run of previously-placed Super-Slab® panels and replaced with new panels with full load transfer without compromising the integrity of the adjacent slabs.

Super-Slab® can also be designed so that individual slabs can be removed from an assembly of slabs to allow for utility work underneath (as might be required in utility-intensive intersections) and placed back in the same location for re-use with full load transfer restoration to adjacent slabs.

PFDR/DBR Method
Yes. A longer length repair would be required to ensure that existing dowel bars are also removed.

Uretek USA Method
Yes.

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18. What dimensional and geometric information is required about existing pavements at the time of design/bidding?

KWIK SLAB
The existing pavement should be surveyed to determine dimensions, elevations, type of subgrade, etc. in order that proper detailing and compaction requirements be predetermined before execution of the work.

PPCP Method
Information concerning the pavement cross-section (including existing thickness and width), desired section length, and information on pavement support structure/base/subgrade layers should be obtained. If horizontal and vertical curves and/or superelevations are present, a detailed survey should be provided.

Super-Slab® System
For single (patching) slab projects, only the plan view size is required. For continuous, multiple slab projects, the designer must detail the horizontal and vertical geometry on the drawings in the form of profiles, cross-sections, super elevation transition data, and “x”, “y”, “z” data of all abutting edges that need to be met. This is the same information that is required for cast-in-place pavement.

Alternatively, for repair projects, the designer may indicate on the drawings that 3-dimensional surfaces are anticipated and note that the contractor is responsible for gathering detailed 3-dimensional geometry prior to fabrication. In all cases, the designer must indicate the required thickness of the new pavement.

PFDR/DBR Method
Existing pavement thickness and lane width information are required.

Uretek USA Method
Existing pavement cross-section information, including width, length and thickness, is required.

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19. What testing has been done on the system and what reports are available?

KWIK SLAB
Load testing of full-scale slabs has been performed at the laboratory of the University of Hawaii by Professor Ian Robertson to verify the direct pull-out capacity of the Kwik Joint Couplers, and the monolithic flexural bending and shear behavior of slabs along the joints between male and female slabs. The results from the load testing verifies full continuity between the slabs. This report is available upon request.

PPCP Method
Pavement sections in Texas, California, Missouri, and Iowa were instrumented during construction to monitor pavement behavior, including stresses, temperature, and slab movement. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) testing was conducted on the projects in Texas and Missouri to measure load transfer across joints. Smoothness data from inertial profilers and/or profilographs were collected on all projects.

Reports are (or will soon be) available from FHWA, The Center for Transportation Research at The University of Texas at Austin, the University of Missouri at Columbia, and Iowa State University.

Super-Slab® System
FWD testing has been performed on numerous projects by various agencies. Fort Miller will provide agency contact information if any results are desired.

A full-scale Heavy Vehicle Simulator test was performed on several Super-Slab® panels in Fontana, CA in 2005 and 2006 by The University of California, Berkeley, under contract to CALTRANS. A preliminary report was completed in October of 2005. The final report should be completed in early 2007. It is expected to indicate long performance life for the Super-Slab System

PFDR/DBR Method
Distress surveys and Falling weight deflectometer tests have been performed.

Uretek USA Method
Full engineering tests have been completed by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. of Chicago, Illinois. Testing shows the superior strength and longevity of Stitches when compared to dowels.

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20. What Technical Support is available (e.g., on-site training and assistance, shop drawings and engineering support, installation and manufacturing manuals)? Are pre- and post-pour processes established and checklists available?

KWIK SLAB
On-site installation advice can be provided by Kwik Slab personnel.

Kwik Slab personnel can review shop drawings for adequacy of details.

An Installation and Manufacturing Manual can be prepared by Kwik Slab personnel for specific projects.

The Installation and Manufacturing Manual, along with advice from Kwik Slab personnel, will cover pre- and post-pour checklists.

PPCP Method
Full support is available to state highway agencies through FHWA. Support includes project scoping and selection, design support, plans and specification development, on-site panel manufacturing support, on-site construction support, and post-construction monitoring and evaluation.

Super-Slab® System
Fort Miller provides design of 3-dimensional slabs, detailed shop drawings, Installation, Supergrading and Fabrication Manuals, training of fabrication personnel, pre-construction training of engineering, inspection and installation personnel, on-site technical assistance during installation, special adjustable steel forms for casting 3-dimensional slabs and access to and training for specialized precision grading equipment.

The cost for this support is covered in the price of the slabs.

PFDR/DBR Method
N/A

Uretek USA Method
Only trained URETEK crews are capable of polymer injection to lift, level, and stabilize replacement slabs. These same crews are trained to properly install the Stitch-In-Time load transfer devices.

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21. List and describe installations in service?

KWIK SLAB
Trial slabs have been installed and the first commercial installation took place in November 2006 for a Bus Stop Pad.
Quantity: 10 slabs
Each: 10 ft. x 13 ft.
Total : 100 ft. x 13 ft.

PPCP Method
1) Interstate 35 frontage road, Georgetown, Texas (2002). A 2,300-ft section of full-width (36 ft wide), full-depth (8-in) pavement was constructed using both full-width (36 ft wide) and partial-width (16 ft and 20 ft wide) precast panels. Precast panels were 10 ft wide and post-tensioned together in 250-ft sections consisting of 25 panels each (with the exception of 325-ft and 225-ft sections at the ends of the project). Panels were installed over a 2-inch-thick hot-mix asphalt leveling course.

2) Interstate 10, El Monte, California (2004). A 248-ft section of mainline Interstate pavement was constructed, providing two additional traffic lanes and outside shoulder. The precast panels were 38 ft long by 8 ft wide, with a variable thickness to accommodate a change in pavement cross-slope from 2 percent in the traffic lanes to 5 percent in the shoulder. The panels were installed over a lean concrete base and post-tensioned in two 124-ft sections.

3) Interstate 57, Sikeston, Missouri (2005). A 1,010-ft section of full-width (38 ft wide) mainline Interstate pavement was constructed to replace a deteriorated jointed reinforced concrete pavement. The precast panels were 38 ft long by 10 ft wide, with a variable thickness to provide a crowned pavement cross-section. The panels were installed over a permeable asphalt-treated base and post-tensioned in four 250-ft sections.

4) Route 60, Sheldon, Iowa (2006). Two bridge approach slabs, each approximately 80 ft in length at the centerline, were constructed at either end of a bridge with a 30-degree skew. Partial-width panels, 14 ft wide by 20 ft long by 12 inches thick, were installed on either side of the centerline pavement crown over a crushed limestone base. Two-way post-tensioning was utilized in lieu of pretensioning.

Super-Slab® System
1) Tappan Zee Bridge Toll Plaza, Tarrytown, NY in 2001. 158,000 SF of slabs were installed during off-peak traffic hours. The entire Plaza was opened each morning for rush hour traffic. 135,000 ADT (both ways). Owner: NY State Thruway Authority.

2) Dulles Airport Taxiway Repair, in 2002. 3500 SF were installed in two locations during overnight closures. Owner: Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority.

3) 9A Ramp, Tarrytown, NY in 2003. 15,750 SF of curved and 3-dimensional slabs were installed while maintaining traffic. Owner: NY State Thruway.

4) Lincoln Tunnel Portals in Weehawken, NJ in 2003. 8,100 SF was placed during 4 weekend closures. 119,400 ADT, Owner: Port Authority of NY & NJ.

5) Belt Parkway, Jamaica, NY in 2003. 16,030 SF of continuous and warped slabs were placed on entry and exit ramps. 181,000 ADT, Owner: NY State.

6) Korean Parkway, Staten Island, NY in 2003. 8,850 SF of intermittent repair slabs placed during 8-hour work windows. 43,000 ADT, Owner: NY State DOT.

7) Intermittent Repair Slabs and Precast Cross-walks, Port Jefferson, NY in 2004 and 2005. Slabs were placed during 5-hour day and 8-hour night closures. Owner: NY State DOT.

8) Intermittent Repair Slabs on I-90 in Albany, NY in 2004. 56,400 SF of intermittent and continuous repair slabs were installed in 8-hour night closures. 105,000 ADT, Owner: NY State.

9) Intermittent and Continuous Repair Slabs, Highway 427, Toronto, ON in 2004. 1,220 SF of slabs were placed in two 8-hour night closures. 313,000 ADT, Owner: Ministry of Transportation, Ontario, Canada.

10) Test Slabs, Fontana, CA in May 2005. 10 slabs were placed for Heavy Vehicle Simulator test performed by CALTRANS.

11) Continuous Replacement, Trunk Highway 62, Minneapolis, MN in 2005. 2592 SF was installed and grouted in two days. 46,500 ADT, Owner: Minnesota DOT.

12) Marine Parkway Toll Plaza, Brooklyn, NY in 2005. 7,041 SF (a single lane) was installed in 3 days. Owner: MTA, Bridges & Tunnels.

13) Fordham Rd. Access Ramp to I-87 NB, Bronx NY in December, 2005. 3,852 SF of single and warped slabs were placed in a series of night closures. 131,000 ADT, Owner: NY State DOT.

14) Rt.7/Watt St. Intersection, Schenectady, NY in 2006. 28,572 SF of warped slabs were placed in 18 overnight work windows. 38,000 ADT, Owner: NY State DOT.

15) High Speed EZ Pass, I-87, Spring Valley, NY in 2006. 576 SF (two slabs across 4 lanes of traffic) of fully instrumented slabs were placed in 3 nights. 105,000 ADT, Owner: NY State Thruway Authority.

PFDR/DBR Method
A complete description of the project installations can be found in: Buch, N., Barnhart, V., and Kowli, R. “Pre-cast Concrete Slabs as Full Depth Repairs (FDR),” Journal of the Transportation Research Board, TRR 1823, pp. 55-64., Washington D.C., October 2003.

Uretek USA Method
URETEK has installed over 15,000 Stitch-In-Time panels over the last 5 years with zero (0) failures. Individual projects and references are available upon request.

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22. Is assistance provided to prepare contract documents? Are cost estimates provided and by whom? Are actual historical installation rates available?

KWIK SLAB
Assistance is available from Kwik Slab personnel to prepare contract documents.

The precaster selected for fabrication and installation will play a major role in the cost analysis.

PPCP Method
Assistance in preparing contract documents is provided to transportation agencies by The Transtec Group through a contract with FHWA.

Historical cost estimates and installation rates are available for projects constructed to date.

Super-Slab® System
Fort Miller provides assistance in determining the feasibility of using precast slabs on specific projects, assistance in preparing contract drawings and specifications, preliminary estimates for slabs delivered to the job site, budgetary installation estimates and anticipated production rates for time estimation purposes. The cost for this service is covered in the price of the slabs.

Historical installation rates for specific projects are also made available.

PFDR/DBR Method
N/A

Uretek USA Method
Contact Mr. Carl Ferm at URETEK USA (cferm@uretekusa.com) for project estimating and proposals. Contact any URETEK Sales Representative for site inspection.

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23. Other comments, considerations, etc.?

KWIK SLAB
None

PPCP Method
None

Super-Slab® System
A total of nearly 5 lane-miles of Super-Slab® are now in service. Over 80% of current installations are servicing over 100,000 ADT and some slabs have been in service for over 5 years.

The Super-Slab® System was referenced in the Federal Register dated May 25th, 2006. The significance of this reference is the discussion on proprietary products and the availability of up to $1.0 Million per project in the Federal Highways for Life Program.

Approximately 70,000 SF of intermittent repairs will be installed in the Spring of 2007 on I-95 in New Rochelle, NY during work windows as small as 5 hours. Other projects in 2007 are anticipated as agencies in the New York City area continue to specify the product.

While the basic technology of Super-Slab® has proven successful on a large variety of applications, improvements to grading, grouting and placement methods are being made continuously.

PFDR/DBR Method
None

Uretek USA Method
None

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24. Contact Information

KWIK SLAB
Email: info@kwikslab.com
Website: www.kwikslab.com

PPCP Method
FHWA:
Mr. Samuel S. Tyson, P.E.
Concrete Pavement Engineer, Office of Pavement Technology
(202) 366-1326
Sam.Tyson@dot.gov

Transtec Group:
Mr. David K. Merritt, P.E.
Project Manager
(512) 451-6233
dmerritt@thetranstecgroup.com
www.precastpavement.com

Super-Slab® System
Mr. Peter J. Smith, P.E.
Vice President
Market Development & Product Engineering
The Fort Miller Co., Inc.
(518) 695-5000 Ext. 260
psmith@fmgroup.com
www.fortmiller.com

Mr. Joseph O'Malley
Sales Engineer
The Fort Miller Co., Inc.
(518) 695-5000 Ext. 233
jomalley@fmgroup.com
www.fortmiller.com

PFDR/DBR Method
Dr. Neeraj Buch
3546 Engineering Building
Michigan State University
East Lansing MI 48824

Mr. Michael Eacker, P.E.
Michigan Department of Transportation, Construction and Technology
8885 Ricks Road
Lansing MI 48909

Uretek USA Method
Carl Ferm
Brent Barron
Mike Vinton
URETEK USA, Inc.
PO Box 1929
Tomball, Texas 77377
888-287-3835
info@uretekusa.com

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